Friday, 23 May 2014

Conclusion and Evaluation

In the project proposal, I set out to participate in at least 7 game jam competitions either solo or as a team between the dates of August 25th 2013 to May 23rd 2014. Setting out to enter in 7 game jams meant at least 7 accompanying postmortem analysis were required for the project. The proposal was underestimated as I managed to participate in a total of 12 Game Jams, averaging slightly over 1 Jam event every month. 8 prototypes were successfully submitted online to the open public, 4 prototypes were unsuccessful and un-submitted online. A total of 11 out of 12 Jam postmortems’ were created. 1 jam entry won 1st place in an international competition overall. 4 Game Jam entries received online reviews/features or ‘let’s-play’ gameplay footage. 2 Ludum Dare entries out of a possible 3 were ranked highly in their desired categories. Without this project, I would be no way near the designer that I have become – it has been the most enriching learning experiences I have ever encountered, I loved every minute of it.

Furthermore, the project has triggered many seized opportunities to further establish AAA industry relationships through networking at both Jam events and through online competitions.  Some of these contacts are member of staff associated at Skybound Studios, Guerrilla Games, Lionhead Studios, Criterion Games/EA, Frontier Studios, Microsoft, Sony Cambridge and Jagex all of which were met and established through the participating of game Jams. As well as gathering AAA networks, it has allowed me to build up countless connections of indie developers through twitter - in addition to having contact with known indie personalities such as; Juicy Beast (Burrito Bison), Jason Rohrer (Passage), Christer Kaitila (Author of The Game Jam Survival Guide), Terry Cavanagh (Super Hexagon), Dead Toast (Newgrounds), Adam and Tom Vian (Detective Grimoire), Barry Meade (The Room) and Alistair Aitcheson (Greedy Bankers) as well as many more who were met along the way!
The project forced me to push myself above and beyond my comfort zone by being interviewed on live BBC radio, and overcoming fear by showcasing a game in front of  an audience of 200 hundred developers. It allowed me countless opportunities to overcome failure going far out of my comfort zone by means of a learning process. I have learnt to self-analyse and be critical towards my work in order to grow as a designer. 

The vast research into an array of different Game Jam competitions from this project has enabled me to produce a document that has the potential to be useful for others. Upon the completion of this project, I will be e-mailing the document personally to students on the course as it lists all the jams I have attended and will give them an idea of the Jams they would be best suited to participate in. I hope that some of the success of this project is projected down to 1st and 2nd year students inspiring them to participate in more Jams to benefit their career.

The highlight of my time at University was winning The Walking Dead Game Jam. It proved to myself that I can create something that is liked by others and for the first time win an international competition. If I could do one thing differently, I would have participated in one or two less Game Jams towards the end, and concentrated on iterating older ones – as my creativity appeared to deteriorate towards the end of the project. Some Jams I learnt a lot more from than others – this is represented clearly in the nature and detail across postmortems. Nonetheless, I am still glad I attempted the ones that were not so successful in learning lots from. After every Jam that I attended for this project, I have been able to take something new to the next one.

One of the best things about this project is I have a vast collection of game prototype to choose from to develop further in order to kick start the beginnings of my Independent Games career. My personal favourite prototypes from the project are Remember the Fallen, then Channel, then I Wish I Could Fly. I plan to continue the development of these upon graduation for a potential independent release.

“If I could, I would do it all over again.”

Jams Attended
Ludum Dare #27 - [24th – 25th August, 2013]
Indie Speed Run 2013 – [13th – 14th September, 2013]
The Walking Dead Game Jam – [26th September – 10th October, 2013]
Charity Game Jam – [23rd – 30th November, 2013]
Game Hack – [16th – 17th November, 2013]
Ludum Dare #28 - [13th -16th December, 2013]
Global Games Jam 2014 – [24th – 26th January, 2014]
Mini Ludum Dare #49 – [21st – 24th February, 2014]
Cyberpunk Game Jam [1st - 10th March, 2014]
Stencyl  Game Jam – [14th - 28th March, 2014]
Norwich Game Jam – [7th - 11th April, 2014]
Ludum Dare #29 – [26th - 28th April, 2014]

Encouraging Others
I was very vocal about this project in encouraging others to participate as well as offering many opportunities for collaboration. To newcomers, finding Game Jams can be difficult so it was my goal to discover these Jams personally and then share these with students on the course whilst entering in them – hopefully this encouraged some to attend. Many of the Game Jams I participated in I made sure to promote on the UCS Game Design page, usually directed at 1st and 2nd year students in particular. Evidence of this throughout the year is shown below.

Monday, 12 May 2014

Ludum Dare #29 - Postmortem


The jam schedule has been updated accordingly since participation in this particular jam
This was my 5th time competed in Ludum Dare and was unfortunately an unsuccessful jam which was a little demoralising until I wrote this postmortem that seems to be a good learning curve. The theme for this Ludum Dare was "Beneath the Surface”, an interesting theme with a lot of potential for some neat ideas – but I just was not feeling it at all, I was un-inspired with little creative thought to grasp.

The Game
I attempted to prototype 2 different ideas for the theme during the first 24 hours of the jam – by the end of the 1st day I had given up on both and spent the rest of jam drawing. Regrettably, I did not submit an entry to the site.

Attempt 1 
Similar to Mini Ludum Dare #49 I spent my time prototyping out platformer game mechanics by tweaking old code. All of the visuals were hand drawn, scanned into the computer, cropped and placed accordingly.
In the process of doing this I simply wasn’t feeling like I was getting anything interesting out of this prototype. I decided to scrap the idea and start over on the basis that this felt too familiar territory in terms of a Game Jam game. I struggled very much to create something new and interesting whilst at the same time being within my technical capabilities. The challenge of making sure to avoid overscoping a prototype for a Jam ultimately led me to not starting anything at the fear of overscoping.

Attempt 2
Attempt two was initially envisioned to be ‘Guess Who’ combined with rapid twitch mechanics. Players simply select a button that randomly generates them a character and shaving foam coordinates. Then, players must quickly remove all the foam by dragging a razor over the characters face to simulate the act of shaving. I came to the realisation that this was quite similar a prototype that I had made in the past entitled ‘Just A Trim’. It was the realisation of this that led me to the decision of giving up on the Jam. I spent the rest of the weekend chewing over what had gone wrong whilst drawing sketching a lot of artwork on the side.

What Went Well?
Fortunately the way I procrastinate is by drawing, meaning I am still being relatively productive when distracted. I took the opportunity to devote the remaining time over the jam to develop my illustrative skills. I guess you could call it an ‘Art Jam’.

None of this artwork had any relevance to anything in particular; no references or research was taken – these were simply for fun.

What Went Wrong?

Dealing with the Game Jam “theme”
I definitely struggled to come up with something interesting enough to peak my interest for the entire weekend – which meant getting side tracked with other ideas. Taking the theme too literally in the back of my head and getting side-tracked was a challenge which I was shamefully unable to overcome.  Usually, finding something to explore come almost effortlessly - often triggered by newly discovered external passions such as: music; art or film.
After participating in the game, it became clear that I needed to undertake some additional research in order to develop my approach in early stages of the jam. I spent some time searching for suggestions that jammers can utilise in order to help come up with a greater game concept, these are as follows:
-          Take a walk
-          Listen to music
-          Mull over ideas away from the computer
-          Come back home and sketch your idea
-          Visualise the game being played before touching the keyboard
-          Talk about the theme over dinner with a friend
-          Sleep on it and start in the morning

What the Experts Say – Chevy Ray Johnston
“Make a really simple game, and spend all your time polishing it like crazy! Really polished games are impressive, addictive and always popular. Visual polish of some sort always seems to give games a boost-up in votes in compos, and makes them more likely to be clicked on by judges.” (Johnston, 2012)  - I agree strongly with this. Polish plays an important part of my approach towards jam participation; moreover this often separates the professional jammers to the amateurs. It is always admiring to see jam veterans in Ludum Dare achieving technical, innovative and artistic polish feats in only 48 hours – something which can be inspiring to see as a fairly new jammer. While polish can sometimes play a key role in winning jams, unless the sole purpose is to win the jam it is important to not sacrifice a fun or engaging and interesting game just to make it look pretty. This is something I have been guilty of in a lot of my past entries which could be the contributing factor as to why I am yet to win a Ludum Dare competition – along with other missing elements.

Motivational Techniques
From some research I have made by consulting the Game Jam Survival Guide I learnt that getting over such things can be resolved by, “busting through the wall, showing off your progress and seeking support: have a chat”. None of these I considered attempting before it was too late. “It is a common feeling to by the end of the first day to be overwhelmed at one’s lack of progress.” (Kaitila, 2012) This was the precise moment of the jam I decided to quit. Staying positive as the hours roll by can be challenging, particularly when working solo in an empty room.

Brainstorming Tips
I have done some additional research towards brainstorming techniques to aid the creative process, some of these I can imagine becoming very useful in a Jam situation. I hope to take these forward with me to the next Jam and put these to practice – the next Jam being Brains Eden in July.
  1. The Write Answer
  1. Write or Type
  1. Sketch your Body
  1. Play with Toys
  1. Change Your Perspective
  1. Immerse Yourself
  1. Crack Jokes
  1. Spare No Expense
  1. The Writing on the Wall
  1. The Space Remembers
  1. Write Everything
  1. Number Your Lists
  1. Mix and Match Categories
  1. Talk to Yourself
  1. Find a Partner
Getting Over “The Wall”
During this jam I had already given up 3 or 4 times before I officially gave up – the wall got the better of me. “I learnt that not giving up is the key to success… If you plough past your self-doubt and smash through that wall of uncertainty you will find that at the end of the tunnel is light.” (Kaitila, 2012)


I regret most all not submitting anything for this Ludum Dare as this has put a halt my Ludum Dare streak. One of my favourite things about Ludum Dare is looking back at all of my older entries to see the improvements that I have made across every 3 months, unfortunately there will be a 6 month gap between my Ludum Dare #28 entry and the next Ludum Dare #30 in July. Again, I consulted The Game Jam Survival Guide; in Chapter 5, page [54] there is a section that explains these exact feelings towards a jam.

Christer Kaitila states “Don’t let your pride stop you from submitting whatever you were able to accomplish. After spending an entire weekend working on you game, you are sure to be your harshest critic.” (Kaitila, 2012)

However, some good things have come out of this jam. I was able to produce a collection of expressive biro drawings – hopefully will one day stem as a character for a game! This was the last Jam of the project, by which point I was ultimately out jammed, looking back I wish I had spent the time iterating on some older prototypes. It was a shame that I could not go out with one cool more idea but nonetheless I feel accomplished in the feat I have achieved since the start of the project.
  • Kaitila, C (2012). The Game Jam Survival Guide. Canada: Packt Publishing. pg 10 - 73.
  • Kaitila, C. (2012). How to Get the Most Out of a Game Jam. Available: Last accessed October, 2013
  • Schell, J (2008). The Art of Games Design. FL: CRC Press. 4 - 450.

Sunday, 27 April 2014

The World Is A Beautiful Place - Postmortem


The jam schedule has been updated accordingly since participation in this particular jam. 

The Jam
The Norwich Inide Game community organised an Game Jam Event that lastest from the 7th – the 11th of April. I started the jam late on the Wednesday night and submitted my entry on Friday at noon. I mainly worked solo for this project but with the help of Joe Kinglake some of the interaction and movement code.

The Game

The theme for the jam was 'Norwich and Norfolk', we created a minimalist piece that simply stands as a proof of concept entitled 'The World Is A Beautiful Place'. I wanted to revisit some old ideas I had kicking around from the previous jam (Stencil Jam) and explore some new ones from some of my recent discoveries. My focus with this jam, as with most was purely towards aesthetics, creating an imaginary little world and attempting to bring everything to life with lots of animation tricks - hopefully some sense of tranquillity was achieved. You can play the game here.

Player’s goal of the game is to simply appease to what the lady in the house requires. Players must search for the key ingredient that will solve the puzzle in the game – thus pealing back the post-it note. My initial vision for this prototype was to create lots of little strips of gameplay that players could peel away once solved to reveal a fresh new one. Each section of gameplay was intended to be fairly minimalist with a couple of minutes of gameplay to solve – making for fairly rapid pacing across new scenes. In the end, I only managed to create one strip of gameplay; the winning animation that reveals the credits screen illustrates this however.

Looking Back to Stencyl Jam
As a follow up from the unsuccessful attempt in Stencyl Jam, the research I had made towards minimalism in games was fresh at hand. The World Is A Beautiful Place was an attempt at pulling the research I had established from the previous Jam into a cohesive minimalist prototype.

What Went Well?

Creatively Inspired
I was immensely creatively inspired for the Norwich Game Jam, meaning I had a good work ethic going into the event. I get heavily inspired and excited by a lot of different things, particularly creative people of any industry that hold such a recognisably unique style to their name, something which takes years of growth and persistence to establish.
When I get inspired by new things I often get very creative. As a designer it is important to me that players are one day familiar with the style or particular qualities in the games I create. I take certain components from other creative and the outside world and merge them together to attempt to build a uniquely cohesive and hopefully memorable experience.

To enhance the paper post-it note aesthetic, I simply added a crumpled up piece of paper texture over the entire game space and turned the opacity filter of down. This worked very well in creating a unique blend of textured vector style artwork, giving an extra touch that I was particularly happy with.


Coastline Influences
I wanted to explore some elements of water and reflection in games; this was tricky as the theme for the Jam was Norfolk and Norwich I had to undertake additional research in order to stay somewhat relevant to the theme and work this it in somehow. I spent some going over imagery of Norfolk coastlines as a basis to get thinking. It proved challenging to get excited about the theme so I changed the direction of my research towards other components that were more creatively stimulating.

Dynamic Text
One aesthetical feature I implemented was to make the name of the game a little dynamic and interactive – this allowed me to develop some additional programming skills too. It was key the name of the game was to be shown to players but I wanted to do something a little different as appose to simply fading out the text. I used ‘Vani’ capitalised font type for text as the clean cut and easy to read appearance complimented the game well.
n Flash, each letter has a unique movieclip and instance name. Within those movieclip is a 35 frame animation. Lettering falls towards varied coordinates whilst fading out to zero opacity. In code I simply put an if statement in the game loop that detects if the player hit tests with a letter movieclip, to then play the animation. Alongside adding polish to the game, this also allows players to clear away the name of the prototype away, which adds a little something to the feel.

Palette and Style
A big influence for this entry is taken from the dark hand drawn illustrations by Don Kenn. Most of all, I have great admiration for his minimalist/simple approach to composition and balance in his work. I aspire to the way he that he fills the page up close, cutting out certain parts of the scene to make for the more visual pleasing piece.

The use of negative space with leading lines in his some of his illustrations is very strong as it directs the viewer’s eyes and attention along the page – it is admiring the amount of control he has over the viewer’s focal point. This was something that I wanted to attempt to develop in this jam by some use of vibrant red colour as well as lining up posts along the pier to lead player’s eye contact up the bank – hopefully some control in the player’s focal point was achieved.

Another thing that Kenn does particularly well is strong use silhouette and shape to create interesting subject matter Рthis one of the elements I took from his. I adopted his approach and theme of creating artwork on post-it notes. However, unlike most of Kenns work I did not want to go for any dark or eering themes by the use of subject matter. I wanted to make a little interactive world within a post-it note where players become apart of a love interest between a boy and a girl Рa little clich̩ I know. I wanted the player to become somewhat attatched to the characters by considered the thoughts of the character as they interact with the world.

Keeping things simple
In addition to having many style, compositional and theme influences I also took out Kenn’s yellow and black colour palette. A  element I especially liked about this was a limited palette allowing for the artwork to be kept simple. Keeping things simple is one the first things discussed in The Game Jam Survival Guide, “First KISS”… “Follow this K.I.S.S. rule: Keep It Simple, Stupid!” (Kaitila, 2012)
“More important than any design document, more important than your programming skills or the fantastic game engine you have is management of your expectations. The masterwork you may wish you could make in a weekend is probably not the game that you will make in reality. One important tactic for Game Jam success is to tone down your plans. Lower your expectations. Follow the K.I.S.S. Rule – keep it simple, stupid!” (Kaitila, 2012)
The KISS rule, as it is, is overly general. What you really need are some concrete and specific examples. 

Modified Survival Guide list of specifics to keep things simple:

  • Simplistic graphics that are quickly produced (less is more)
  • Limit your colour palette to as few shades as possible
  • Simple controls (as few as possible: four or less buttons)
  • Minimal game mechanics (one or two rules)
  • DO one thing well, not twenty things poorly
  • Make the executable “just work” without complex installation
  • Avoid long intros, cinematic effects or setup screens
  • Don’t craft perfect OOP code for future use: quick n dirty is fine
  • Aim for less than you think you can accomplish
  • Plan to finish early (everything takes longer than expected)
  • Low tech is better, high tech (cutting edge) is problematic
  • 2D games take a quarter of the time to code than an equivalent 3D game
  • 2D art takes 1/20th the hours of designing as compared to 3d art
  • When in doubt: no physics engine
  • When in doubt: Square grid (as opposed to hexagons)
If you have only 12 hours of the Jam left before the deadline and you have failed to keep it simple and you are in a position where you might not finish, then don’t panic – there are still things you can do to resolve the situation. 12 hours is the perfect time to change direction “…For example, throw out half your game design. Make a joke game that is impossible to win.” (Kaitila, 2012)

Kaitila’s list of ways to finish when all seems lost:
  • Buggy? Find something fun about it and call it a feature!
  • Only one level? Call it a “battle arena!”
  • Broken weapons? Make the game an “avoider” with no guns!
  • Sound broken? Your main character is deaf – or in space!
  • Not fun yet? Make it a “joke game” meant to annoy players!
  • Ugly art? Call it retro, hipster or ironic!
  • Poor framerate? Make it a turn based strategy!
  • No story or characters? This is an arcade title!
  • No gameplay or all story? This is a visual novel!
  • No “game over” or way to die? Can you survive for 60 seconds?
  • Code won’t compile? Comment out parts until it does!
  • Too tired to finish? Call it done right now and submit!
  • It works but it sucks? Take pride in the fact that you finished!

With the aid of the Onion Skin tool in Flash, I was able to drawn smooth frames of animation quickly – making use of this can be essential in Jams. The fish animations and timings turned out well as I was a little short on time.

Movement Controls
I have never created a game that features mouse click to move the character controls - this often reminds me of the way strategy games feel. However, the influence towards the specifics of a mouse click movement control scheme takes heavy influence from the game ‘Don’t Starve’. This is one thing that we liked that Don’t Starve does particularly good at. It allows players to navigate characters around the screen effortlessly. They achieve this with simple mouse clicks, removing any need to additional button input from the player. 

One of my more recent discoveries are of the films by Wes Anderson. Almost instantly I was in awe of his vibrant colour palettes and meticulous style that is so clearly definable in his filmmaking. "Anderson is famous for symmetry, wide angle lenses and the colour yellow. His quirky films such as Fantastic Mr. Fox, The Darjeeling Limited and recently Moonrise Kingdom have earned him the title of "The Next Scorcese" (Scorcese, 2013) to me, Anderson creates almost picturesque scenes that are wonderfully memorable to his audience. As designers there is a lot we can learn from the film industry in making our games iconic and memorable for players - by analysing some of the 'greats' in the film biz we can begin to understand how this can be achieved.

If you striving to make your game as unique as possible, it is vital you take influence from mediums other than just simply video games. Sure, games are useful to analyse and it is important to be aware for trends, but if you want to make something that players have never seen before then it can be beneficial to bring in a range of artistic components from both games and the real world.

One thing I wanted to do was take an aspect of Andersons' unique style and attempt to explore it further within games - that thing is symmetry. We can use symmetry to make our scene appear very neat and balanced. Observing the way Anderson utilises symmetry seems almost like strive for perfectionism, the consistency in his quality style omits creative meticulousness and obsessiveness – traits to truly admire.

Symmetry was something that I wanted to explore during this event. I was not too worried about these influences being drastically related to the theme, at this stage I was simply trying to collect up many cool components that I could then bring together. I liked the idea of a landscape perfectly reflected in water. This gave me the freedom to create a freeform landscape in whatever shape I wanted allowing for symmetry once flipped horizontally.

Musical Influences
Another creative component I decided to take from was the music and lyrical themes by the post-rock/emotional focused band "The World Is A Beautiful Place And I Am No Longer Afraid To Die". I had tickets and plans to see these guys live in Norwich on the Wednesday evening that I decided to devote my full participation into the jam instead.
My initial thought process was to create something that would hopefully be worth missing the gig for, and so I named my entry 'The World Is A Beautiful Place' as a little homage to missing the show. Often my games I try to create are heavily influenced or inspired by the music I listen to in some way - particularly my individual projects.

I like to take lyrical components that stand out to me and create my own little interactive world of how I imagine/visualise these lyrics to be. I pick out the lyrics - "So there's this party, down at the pier and we can go there if you want". I take the noun 'pier' as my place, my setting and framing for my environment. I pick out the 1st person pronoun 'we' and 2nd person pronoun 'you' and imagine a love interested between a man and woman which I use as the overall focal point and basis for theming. It is important to note that I do not like to use this music for the sounds in my games. I often use classical piano in order to enhance the mood and tone of the game to bring the overall aesthetic to life. I simply use the music I listen to as a tool to get creatively inspired.

What Went Wrong?

Sensory Significance
One thing I wanted to explore with this entry was applying significance towards traditional sensory components, such as smell, touch, taste, hearing and sight. As designers we can immerse players deeply into our world by giving them sensory information to obtain about their environment. It is the one thing I really want to begin to understand fully in order to attempt to immerse players with world they find themselves in.

Unfortunately, this particular entry is a fairly poor attempt in outlining the fundamentals of merged multiple sensory components in a prototype. The more sensory components you have working correctly in unisons with one another the better. There is one example of sense of smell that I attempt to explore during this game jam. A technique I utilize to my advantage in attempt to apply significance to sensory objects is by giving them vibrancy through complementary/contrasted colour. "Bright primary colours attract the eye, especially when they're contrasted with a complimentary hue."

"One good way we can create colour contrast is by including bright splash of colour against monochromatic background. Scenes consisting almost entirely of a single hue can be very effective. And those with a limited palette of harmonious shades, such as softly lit landscapes, often make great pictures. The key is to be really selective about how you isolate and frame you subjects to exclude unwanted colours." The only way I have practiced approaching implementing this idea is by simply having a basket of apples and when players interact with them the characters thought bubble appears exclaiming [those apples smell great].

My focus was on creating a nice place for people to visit, rather than a fun focused gameplay experience. In terms of gameplay, there are a bunch of hidden objects that once clicked rewards players with details of the characters internal monologue. The game does have a goal but features no conflict. The only smidgen of conflict that players face is their internal process of figuring out the system, the game does throw anything at them that will directly kill them or tell them it is game over - so as it stands the prototype is closer to an interactive art piece than a game. With some iteration though, it would not take much to build this prototype into something that is more definable as a game.

Once again, looking at Nicole Lazzaro’s ‘The 4 Keys 2 Fun’, I can only pick out one element of fun. Currently the game only has some elements of Easy Fun. “Easy fun inspires exploration and role play.” – Lazzaro. Players experience some emotions of curiosity wonder and awe, but much iteration in the way of making this prototype fun would need a lot of care an attention towards.

Conclusion/What I Learnt?

Attending the festival on the Friday for submitting my entry I managed to catch a lecture from one of the creators of Surgeon Simulator, Imre Jele. He briefly discussed the logistics of his indie studio and how they go about selecting a project to develop further. What they do is they create many Jam prototypes over the course of a couple of months and then at the end of those months they select one or two that they really like to then develop for a further couple of month. Their studio revolves heavily on Jamming.

Nearing the end of the submission process of the Jam, teams were called up one at a time to do a 10 minute talk about their Jam Game, I was called up first. Although terrifying in the presence of a room full of unfamiliar industry folk I managed to clearly discuss the nature of the game, how is it made, what I like about it, potential for future developments, the link to theme, vision, the tool set and a little about myself. There was also room for questions where a number of developers seems to really like the concept and complimented the game to me personally after the event – all in all, making for a highly motivating and rewarding could of days out travelling to Norwich.
The World Is A Beautiful Place has potential to function well on touch screen mobile devices. Particularly once featured with swiping away pages of post-it notes to reveal new gameplay – I can see this working, and I quite like the idea of randomly generating those pages so players never know what they will get, making it different each time!


The World Is A Beautiful Place was created using the following tools, I was able to develop new skills in these areas.

Game Engine
Programming Language
Paper Prototyping
Adobe Flash CS6
Actionscript 3.0
Adobe Flash CS6
Pen & Paper, Post-it notes

List of Illustrations

  • Gabriel Lievano. (2009). Less is More. Minimalism in Games (Part I). Available: Last accessed 2014
  • jmeyer. (2012). 10 rules of photo composition (and why they work). Available: Last accessed 2014.
  • Kaitila, C (2012). The Game Jam Survival Guide. Canada: Packt Publishing. pg 10 - 73.
  • Kaitila, C. (2012). How to Get the Most Out of a Game Jam. Available: Last accessed October, 2013
  • Kushins, J. (2014). 12 Hypnotic Animation Tricks Used By Disney's Legendary Artists. Available: Last accessed 2014.
  • NA. (2014). #1UpNorwich Game Jam. Available: Last accessed 2014.
  • Schell, J (2008). The Art of Games Design. FL: CRC Press. 4 - 450.